Chimu culture. One of the greatest civilizations flourished in Peruvian territory. During the pre-Columbian era, it was the Chimú culture. Heir to a mochica past. But forging of immense achievements that influenced decisively in his successors, the Incas.
Along the north coast of Peru. Between Tumbes and the Huarmey Valley, the Chimú culture developed. In the same territory that the Mochicas occupied. They erected the well-known Chimú kingdom between the years 1100 and 1400 A.D. leaving historical traces with its architecture. Political organization and artistic manifestations.
Historical history of the Chimú culture.
According to the investigations. The Chimu emerged around the year 900 A.D. was locked in a small group located in the old Moche Valley and its environs. Its founder Taycanano. He was a mythical character who came by the sea with his courtship. Becoming the first ruler of Chan Chan. Capital of the Chimú culture.
Subsequently. His son Guacricur, conquered the lower part of the valley. And then his grandson Naucempinco laid the foundations of the Chimu kingdom. accordingly. They dominated the headwaters of the Moche Valley and its vicinity as Sana Pacasmayo, Chicama, Virú, Chao, Santa.
For the year 1400. The Chimú area extended to 1,300 kilometers along the northern coast of Peru. Chan Chan became the capital of the Chimu kingdom. Formed by other administrative centers like Farfán Manchán, Pacatnamú, Apurlec and the fortress of Paramonga.
Minchancaman. The last Chimú ruler, faced the Incas led by Túpac Yupanqui. Between 1462 and 1470. Once, Minchancaman defeated. He was taken to permanent prison in Cuzco. Turning the Chimú into a subordinate state to the Inca Empire. However. The Incas assimilated various aspects of their culture, such as politics, art and religion.
Social, political and economic aspects of the Chimú culture.
From a political standpoint, the Chimú kingdom was a theocratic state. Centralist and military-oriented expansion. Composed of a bureaucratic network of regional administrators. That controlled the production of artisans and peasants. Under this scheme the society was hierarchical as follows:
cie quichs. He was the king of the Valley and descendants of the gods. He had semidivine, military and civil authority.
alaec. The great chieftains who were subordinate to the CIE Quich.
fixla. It was represented by people with prestige and economic power.
Paraeng. Consists by the working people as fishermen, farmers, artisans and traders.
Yanas or slaves. Dedicated to domestic chores.
With regard to the economic system of the Chimú culture. It worked through an organized gear of urban and rural centers. So the state from the capital Chan Chan. It maintained administrative control of production. In terms of storage. Redistribution and consumption of goods or products. Essentially agriculture formed the basis of the Chimú economy with other activities such as fishing and hunting. In addition, to obtain resources that they did not produce. They encouraged commercial barter with other towns and even used coins.
The beliefs of the Chimú culture.
The religious world of the Chimú culture. It was marked under a cosmological view. Because of the existing belief that they descended from four stars. Likewise, the main cult was professed to the moon or Shi. Attributing the growth of plants and tide. Although each village gave devotion to other divinities such as Jiang representing the sun. or Ghis the Earth.
Moreover. They believed that the souls of the deceased were going to the seashore. From where it was transported by sea lions to its last dwelling. But the Chimú religious practice became somewhat bloody, as the children were slaughtered in honor of Shi.
Artistic expressions of the Chimú culture.
Influenced by the Wari and Mochica civilizations. The Chimú culture expanded its artistic manifestations to become the essence of Andean art. Among them are.
Ceramic. Fulfilling functions of domestic and funeral use. They were elaborated in a simple way or with a lot of dedication. Respectively. They possessed a variety of globular forms. Highlighting the use of the handle and a small sculpture between it and the beak. Generally presenting a metallic black color and a characteristic luster. Obtained by smoking the jar before being polished.
Metallurgy and goldsmithing. As a legacy of the conquest of the Lambayeque civilization. The Chimú moved all the goldsmiths to their lands. In this way. They developed metalworking and metallurgy techniques to manufacture objects destined for ceremonial purposes or body ornaments. Contrary to what is believed. The famous ceremonial knife of Illimo or Túmi is a work lambayeque.
Architecture. Among the architectural works of the Chimú culture, the Chan Chan City stands out. Designed in the form of rings. Composed of administrative buildings made in Adobe. A maze of streets, palaces and a hydraulic system of canals or wells.
It is essential to emphasize to finish. That after the Wari Empire decayed. The Chimú culture emerged, becoming so important that it is comparable with civilizations like the Mayan or the Aztec.