The Chichimeca culture. It was a group of indigenous peoples with different ethnic traits. As linguistic, they formed an alliance against the conquest. Precisely his name was given to him by the conquistadors in a pejorative way to refer to the term barbaric. But history recognizes them as the nomadic peoples who inhabited the Northern territory of Mexico.
The Chichimecas were hunters and gatherers who lived in natural caves or in palm huts. This is how they spread to the north from Queretaro to Saltillo and from Guadalajara to San Luis de Potosí. No delimitation determined. By not having a territorial limitation. War conflicts between these tribes were frequent as they did not develop a great cultural production.
Historical chronology of the Chichimeca culture.
Historically the Chichimeca culture had several stages according to its level of development. That correspond from 1000 BC to 1800 D.C.
During the first period called deer. They were hunters of small species of animals and gatherers of seeds, fruits or roots. For the second stage called Huerta. The most sustainable farming communities have progressed. Near the rivers.
Also. With the transculturation of other Mesoamerican peoples, they came to cultivate maize and produce ceramics. For it. Their population increased so much that they occupied much of the region.
At this stage known as Tunal Grande. They invaded the valley of Mexico. Immediately after the fall of Tollen Xicocotitlán. A migration commanded by the great Chichimeca Xolotl. It caused two lineages to share the territories of the Valley of Mexico. In this way the Chichimecas and the inhabitants of the Mexican valley. They formed a powerful and progressive people: the Toltec culture.
Apart. The Chichimecas were highly feared for their bellicosity and fierceness over the other peoples. But the political unity initiated by Xolotl. It was fragmented in the mid-14th century. When different cities came into conflict with the growing Aztec power.
However. Neither the mighty Aztec empire could subdue them, and the Spanish conquest lasted four decades to overcome them.
The peoples of the Chichimeca culture.
The Chichimeca culture was formed by six villages. Whose common identity was to be warriors and gatherers. So we have.
It was the tribe with the greatest amount of population and they were moving through Juchipila, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Teocaltiche, Tlaltenango. The Teul, Nochistlán. Characterized by being warriors and conquerors. They had a political organization where a village represented the rest.
A very bellicose tribe. That among his manners were to paint his body and head in red. In addition to practicing cannibalism.
Its territory was composed of what today are the states of… Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, southern Coahuila and northern Jalisco.
Skilled Warrior tribe that inhabited most of the current state of Guanajuato. Although their incursions came to Jalisco and Lagos.
The guamares were dangerous. Especially in the night attacks. Bullying his white facial paintings at his enemies.
Of all the peoples of the Chichimeca culture. They were the most peaceful. Ranking in the vicinity of Mexico City. The same. They shared territory to the west with the Guachichiles, Guamares, with the Otomi in Jilotepec and with the Purépecha in Michoacan.
It was a village of artisans. Carpenters and stonemasons. They were also established on the banks of the rivers to grow beans, pumpkins or maize.
Located to the east of the present Guadalajara, there is the belief that they came from the dispersion of the Zacatecos groups.
Brave warriors who stood out for their skill in using the arrows. And unlike the guachichiles. They were more civilized. They were also distinguished because they wore no clothing. Covering only the feet and legs to protect themselves from the vegetation.
Within the Chichimeca culture. The sociopolitical organization was based on the Caciquismo and on family patriarchy. On the basis of it. The chieftain who was the best-endowed warrior. He was in charge of religious affairs. Civil and war. There was a lower-ranking figure. Who were the warlords. Who directed a certain group of people.
One of the characteristics of the Chichimecas society was that monogamy was practiced in the southern lands. And in the north polygamy. In addition, it was a custom for man to engage in hunting. War, agriculture and handicrafts. While the woman took care of the harvest of fruits and seeds.
The Warrior culture Chichimeca.
Usually the Chichimecas were ready for war with dances and prayers in a ceremony they called Mitose. By habit the mitose was carried out in nocturnal hours. And during the celebration they consumed peyote cactus. As a hallucinogenic substance.
Between their weapons were the bow and arrow. that they handled skillfully. Besides axes, knives, javelins and clubs. About it. The tip of the arrow was made with obsidian. And the warrior to protect himself from the stroke of the bow. He wore a leather bracelet. His way of fighting was naked. Smeared with tints of different colors and armed with the above mentioned resources.
With the advancement of the Spanish invasion. The most bloody episode was precisely the Chichimeca war. That exploded in 1550. It began with the attack of the Zacatecos on a Spanish expedition. To which the Guachichiles and the Guamares joined.
In general. The Chichimecass were ambushed and attacked at sunrise or dusk. No matter how many people there were in the Spanish camps. They regularly took everything. Especially dress and food. Leaving the attackers out of life. For his contempt for the Indians who had embraced the conquest. The Chichimecas razed full populations. by killing and Despoblándolas.
At last. The result was incredible. The Chichimecas received land, clothing, food and luxury items. In exchange for peace and their support for religious conversion.