Chavin Culture. With a great artistic and religious influence on other peoples. The Chavín culture is the oldest civilization among the most important of Peru.
The so-called Peruvian pan culture. It covered the coast from Lambayeque to Ica. And the Sierra from Cajamarca to Ayacucho. Its development period was between the years 900 to 200 BC and they were probably originating in the jungle regions. Being the ancestor of cultures like La Salinar. Lima and Nazca. Recent research shows that the Caral culture was the oldest, even so. The Chavín are the mothers of the Andean civilisations of Peru.
Socio-political organization of the Chavín culture.
Politically Chavín culture was ruled by a theocratic state. Ruled by priests in the name of the gods. While the priests and warriors were hogging the resources or the knowledge, the people were exploited to produce more.
About it. The socio-political organization of the Chavín culture was hierarchized as follows.
Priests. They were the specialists. Scientists who dominated astronomy. This gave them great influence and power.
Warrior nobility. It was in charge of containing the enemy invasions and the riots within the Chavín society. This army was able to guarantee the conditions for the development and expansion of the territory.
People. Formed by the multitude of workers. Those who were to pay tribute to the gods and to the rulers.
Economy of the Chavín culture.
The main economic activities of the Chavín culture were. Farming gathering, hunting and fishing.
In the agricultural area they specialized in the cultivation of maize. That together with their derivatives used for bartering. They also developed potato planting. Sweet potatoes, mashua or bitter potato, olluco, beans, chili. Peanuts, quinoa, cucumber and tomato. For this they used advanced agricultural techniques like the use of channels and the plow on foot. increasing productivity.
Cattle ranching was supported by the camelids of the Andes. Better known as llamas or alpacas. And in the breeding of guinea pigs.
The use of sophisticated procedures in the textile area. Metalworking and fishing. They stimulated the economic advancement that the construction of cities and ceremonial centers produced.
Religion of the Chavín culture.
The religious aspect of the Chavín culture had influence of the jungle animals like. Jaguar, puma, snakes and alligators. That’s right. Various Andean birds such as the Condor, Eagle and Falcon. Whose traits were depicted in the sculptures of supernatural beings.
accordingly. The religious characteristic of this Peruvian pan culture was to worship different terrifying gods. All these deities were further reproduced in other cultural manifestations as in the ceramic art. Textiles and metal utensils.
The religious rituals were led by the priests. Being the music and clothing important part of the ceremonies.
In the religion of the Chavín culture it was common the use of hallucinogenic substances to achieve the transformation from one human being to another. For this, the priests used the cactus of San Pedro Ayahuasca. Putting them in a trance and closer to the gods.
The main deity of this culture was the god of the staffs. With feline attributes. And that was propagated throughout the Andean region. Thus this divinity was the force that unifieded the civilisations of the Andean zone in its historical development. The same. He was always depicted in an incomplete way. Highlighting elements such as fangs, claws, tail and eyes. Which gave to express power and danger.
For those reasons. It can be concluded that the Chavín cult was based on the fear of the natural forces.
Ceremonial centers of the Chavín culture.
The most outstanding temples of the Chavín culture are.
Chavín de Huántar.
It constitutes the main ceremonial center of the Andean World. Located 462 kilometers from Lima. Which was built in two stages.
First the old temple was erected between the years 900 and 500 BC with a U-shaped plant. Being formed by a network of underground galleries. With several cells. In its center is found the God the heave.
During the years 500 to 200 BC the second stage called Nuev Temple was built, which consisted of a wider structure. Also this building is joined by a staircase to the sunken square. In the center is the obelisk Tello.
Located in the Cerro La Copa de Kuntur Wasi in Cajamarca. Having a height of 2,300 meters above sea level. Built on top. It is made up of staggered platforms. Rectangular rooms. Sunken square and funerary structures. According to the Quechua language. The name Kuntur Wasi means House of the Condor.
It is locked in a locality of the same name in the Department of Lambayeque. Where gold-carved pieces of goldsmith were found.
Located in the Sierra Norte. In the Department of Cajamarca was a ceremonial center of monumental character. Made of carved and polished stone.
Arranged in the middle of the urban area of Lima. It has three large U-shaped structures. According to archaeological studies. This ceremonial center suffered three major renovations since its construction in the early period.