Chancay culture. After the fall of the Wari Empire. Many civilizations arose. Among them the Chancay culture. Who were great artisans in the wood carving.
In the Central Coast of Peru, in the middle of the valleys of Chancay and Chillan. The Chancay culture was established. Extending territorially from Huaura to the lower part of the Rio Chillan. Between the years 1200 and 1470 A.D.
General aspects of the Chancay culture.
It is presumed that the Chancay culture was a densely populated society in relation to archaeological finds. According to this. The sites that support this hypothesis are urban centers such as Pisquillo Chico and Lauri that functioned as administrative-ceremonial nuclei. Also Pancha the Huaca as a residential-governmental complex. And Tronconal it turned out to be a small settlement. All these places concentrated a large number of artisans dedicated to a large-scale production.
Moreover. This culture reached a sociopolitical structure managed by priestly castes in the various settlements. I mean. There was not a single emperor, but several rulers. That led the seigniories along the Chancay territory. The rest of the population was composed of a large social sector responsible for producing goods for maintenance.
The Chancay culture began to decay in the fifteenth century. When the conquerors dominated the Inca empire. In 1532. Their temples were covered by new ones. Representing a symbol of the religious renewal imposed by the settlers. But, it’s in 1562. By instructions of the Viceroy Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco that Luis Flores founded the city of Chancay with the name of Villa de leased.
The economic activity of the Chancay culture.
Economically the Chancay culture was supported in the agriculture. They built water reservoirs and irrigation channels.
Also. They were excellent fishermen. Using artisanal fishing on the shores of the sea. and boats called Caballitos de Totora. That allowed them to get away from their shores. Many of the resources they found in the ocean were sources of inspiration for the art of the Chancay culture.
So, through navigation. The Chancay culture ventured into the trade with faraway villages. Additionally. They came to carry out commercial operations with towns of the Sierra and the Peruvian jungle. Something that was possible. By the productive mass of ceramics. Textiles, wood carvings, and metals such as gold or silver.
Funerary practices of the Chancay culture.
One of the discoveries in the immense cemeteries of the Chancay culture. It was the existence of two types of burials.
These graves destined for rulers. They contained three-metre-deep rectangular chambers. With stairs to descend. and covered with stick or mud roofs. The interior is a great number of offerings in ceramics, textiles or objects made with gold and silver.
Popular burials were performed almost on the surface of the land. Used no more than simple fabrics and few offerings.
Other funerary aspects of the Chancay culture. It was the human heads carved into wooden batons. that were used as crowns for important characters. Maybe. This symbolized the political power or a mythical condition that the rulers acquired after the dead. In the same way. They used funerary bales composed of several layers of cloth and mantles to envelop the relevant deceased. as well. They had the chimu breed of dogs. To be buried in the mouth of the graves and be a guide in the way of the deceased to eternity.
Manifestations of the Chancay culture.
Among the expressions that differentiated the Chancay culture are the following.
If something draws the attention of the Chancay culture is the detail and delicate work in the carving of figures on the wood of Huarango. Some of them were oars used for vessels or agricultural instruments to dig the Earth. The surprising thing. Is that regardless of their use. They presented an excellent decor and even painted in blue. Yellow or red. For ceremonial rituals they used the long rods with piercings and a character or a human face at one end.
Decorated in black and white colours. They produced songs, boats, dolls, usually large and with peculiar shapes.
Considered some expert weavers. They used techniques like brocade. The decorated chiffon, and the painted textile. Using cotton fibers. Alpaca wool and llamas. The decorated gauze was used in the making of light articles of different sizes or to cover the heads of the dead. In terms of decoration. They applied a wide range of colors. Figures of fish, birds or anthropomorphic and geometric designs. They emphasized the tapestries or mantles with a great variety of figures painted with brush and embroidered laces in the finishes. According to the beliefs. The threads called Lloque, were impregnated with supernatural powers which served as protection for the hereafter.